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" Perhaps no other site on the world wide web is more often cross-referenced and "linked to" from the thousands of other literary web pages than the PAL site. ... " - Professor Michael O'Conner, Millikin Univ. (Read the entire major site review at American Literature Web Resources).

Nancy McEnery, Librarian, Napa Valley College: Is there any way to still access your site Perspectives in American Literature?  It was my “go to place” to show community college English students.  Have you posted it on another server?  . . . Thank you SO much for all of your work on this Paul.  It is a fantastic site that our students love!  I have used it over the years and the breadth and depth of information wows instructors and students alike. August 31, 2016

Ty Elrod:
I'd like to start off by thanking you for putting together the most incredible academic resource that is available online for American Literature.  As a graduate student, this website has saved me from countless hours of scrutinizing annotated bibliographies in the library.   August 23, 2016

Peter B. Olson, Lecturer, Department of English, Mississippi State University: I have found your website useful and instructive, a great resource. I have accessed a number of your pages and directed students to your site. I am now preparing to teach an American Literature 1 course and concurrently develop an online course of that material. Please let me know how I might access your material (cite and implement) as I develop an online course and let me know how to use this material so as to stay within your permissions. I am impressed with the scope, organization, content, and study material. October 26, 2011

Jennifer Knobloch, English teacher, Neenah High School, Wisconsin: I just wanted to drop a quick note to say "thank you" for creating such a comprehensive resource on American literature.  I teach American literature to high school juniors in Neenah, Wisconsin, and your site has provided so many great lesson plan ideas and it's always within my list of "suggested resources" for research projects.  Thank you! October 14, 2011

Debbie Wilson, Sioux City, IA: Just wanted to thank you so much for the wonderful, comprehensive, thorough and enlightening PAL website. I am an American Lit HS teacher, and this has been an INVALUABLE resource for both my students and myself! I have used it for years now, and just wanted to pass along my THANKS! 19Feb2011

Rick Diguette, Humanities Department, Georgia Perimeter College, Dunwoody, GA: I use your page extensively in the Survey of American Literature that I teach. It is an invaluable resource. If you haven't won some kind of award by now for this website, then the award granting folks ought to be ashamed of themselves. I can't thank you enough. August 20, 2010 (Awards)

Roland Richardson, Baton Rouge, LA: I just stumbled into your marvelous work "Perspectives in American Literature - A Research and Reference Guide" while researching the key words "eat, move, socialize, purpose" on Google in a chase of information on longivity.The name 'Langston Hughes' popped up in the search returns and I detoured for a moment to check the rest of the story. Thusly, the stumble. The work is such a complete package, I wondered if it were available in one unified pdf? I recognize that the master work is still being updated, but a "one stop" starting point would be a unique addition to the literature I have saved as "important" for my personal library of books and other references. In the meantime, Blessings of prosperity and continued success, and continue "Perspectives." July 3, 2010

Tom Bridwell: Just want to take a moment to thank you for sharing your wonderful piece of research. I am teaching a junior English honors course this summer and your bibliographies and concise introductions, in addition to my text, have provided all the resources I need "and then some." July 1, 2010

Daniel McClure, Ph.D. Asst. Professor of Liberal Studies & African/African-American Studies, Grand Valley State University, Allendale, MI: I am contacting you to thank you for all of your work in compiling the PAL online reference. My students have found it immensely useful in augmenting our texts and other online and multimedia resources. Thank you for all of the hard work. February 16, 2010

Jason Stacy, Assistant Professor of History, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville: I suspect you hear this all the time, but Perspectives in American Literature is a real treasure. Thanks for your hard work! November 29, 2009

Michelle Graham, Instructor, Emerson College, Boston: I am writing to inquire whether it would be acceptable to you for me to provide my students--on the class WebCT page--links to your PAL site. There is such a wealth of information, organized in an easily accessible format, that I think it would be very helpful to my students in furthering period contexts for them. . . . My students are finding your site to be extremely useful, and I greatly appreciate your generosity. March 15, 2008

Diane Mora, EFL Teacher, Zhianjian Normal University, China: This is probably a strange request, but here it goes anyway. I am directing several senior students on their senior essays.  One of my students wants to compare a Chinese poem to an American or English poet.  At present she wants to compare it to Poe's "The Raven".  Personally, I think something by Dickinson might be more in line.  I am limited in resources at the moment and many of the websites are, um shall we say, "difficult to access" from my location. Would you be kind enough to read the following translated version of the Chinese poem that has been selected and provide a complimentary Dickinson poem?  If you think of one, I will have to impose on you for the poem itself and not just the title, since I do not think it will be possible for me to access it any other way. October 3, 2007. ... Thank you for your quick and generous reply. You have been very helpful. I was able to access your website - miracles do happen! October 6, 2007

W. David Alderson, Band Director, J.W. Leary Junior High School, Massena, New York: As a music educator, reader and student of life, I appreciate your website more than you'll ever know. It is a wonderful source for inquiry, study and research. You've made the world a much nicer place to be.......Thanks again. May 30, 2007

Tonya Bonifay, Teacher, Delta Sierra Middle School, Lodi Unified School District, CA: Dear Dr. Reuben, while searching for background information for a lesson plan I'm preparing, I ran across your name on a page about Langston Hughes.  I was immediately transported to your classroom.  I distinctly remember your passion for your subject, your insistence that students' work be of the highest quality, and how much I learned in your classes.  I am now a middle school teacher, a position which I thoroughly enjoy, despite (or perhaps because of) the constant drama of middle school life. Thank you for helping prepare me for a great profession! February 26, 2007

Brian T. Edwards, Ph.D. Associate Professor of English and Comparative Literary Studies, Northwestern University: I have just discovered your website . . . It's a very impressive resource that you have created, and surely the product of much work.  I have read the accolades you have received and see that they are deserved. . . . much respect for your scholarly and pedagogical endeavor.  Congratulations on this achievement! February 8, 2007

Robert Ballentine, Chair, English Department, West Springfield High School, West Springfield, MA: Here's just a note of thanks from out here in cyberspace.  Your site, which I have been using since its beginning, has been of incalculable value to me and my high school American Literature students.  When I assign a research paper, I send the students to your site first.  It has everything my students need to make informed decisions about authors, topics, bibliographies, and elements of research--all in one compact, easy-to-navigate site. Thank-you for the service you have performed for countless numbers of students in search of a direction and sources of essential information about American Literature. November 29, 2006

Sharon Dean Lee, Hayfield Secondary School, Alexandria, VA: I believe I expressed my appreciation to you several years ago for your very useful website on American Literature, but I want to reiterate how much I have used it with my students since the 1990s, both here in Virginia and at my former high school in Georgia.  I have updated a scavenger hunt (most recent update attached) throughout the site's many incarnations.  This assignment leads college prep, honors, and AP students through a review of romanticism, realism, and naturalism and gives them an overview of your site with its many tools.  Thank you again. September 16, 2006

Bill Miller, English Teacher, Hemet High School, Hemet, CA: Dear Dr. Reuben, My name is Bill Miller, a former student of yours  - 1972-3, and I have been teaching English at the secondary level since graduating from CSUS.   I stumbled upon your web site looking up resources for teaching  E. A. Poe. Just wanted to thank you for the impact your teaching of Am. Lit has had on my life and career in educ.   I have carried the " Reuben essence" of teaching literature into my own classroom, and I know that my students have gained more from writers' "lessons of the heart"  than from a purely academic analysis of their work.    Many of my past students decided to major in English in college, and a number of them are teaching high school English today, including two who currently are members of my own English dept. today. From a teacher to his mentor,  thanks again!! January 16, 2006             

Janice Cooper, Northern Valley Regional HS, Old Tappan, New Jersey: I am a high school teacher writing an Internet-based lesson on the literary movements of the 1920s. This lesson was developed as a part of a research project on the impact of school libraries on student learning being conducted by the Rutgers University Center for International Scholarship in School Librarianship. The lesson is purely educational and no money will ever be charged for its use. I am writing to request permission to link to your wonderful Website, "PAL: Perspectives in American Literature, Chapter 7: Early Twentieth Century - Index " @ as a resource in the lesson. Thank you for considering my request. November 25, 2005

Scott Andrews, Assistant Professor of English, California State University Northridge: One of my students cited your website that outlines some basic ideas behind Realism. I checked it out to make sure she had used it appropriately and found it to be very useful for students. Your hard work and expertise are appreciated. October 29, 2005

Penny Hartley, Adjunct Instructor, Copiah Lincoln Community College, Wesson, Mississippi: Your site is incredible.  I will teach American Literature for the first time this fall, and I was in a panic until I found your site.  Thank you so much for the providing such a valuable resource. August 17, 2005

Megan Gordon, English Grad. Student, Boston College: I just wanted to write and thank you for putting the time and energy into your PAL site. Some colleagues and I are studying for our comprehensive exams and I've used your site extensively with our American literature segment. Again, I'm continually impressed and thankful for the work you've done to maintain such an accurate, informative, complete site! April 21, 2005

Leslie Mefford, English Teacher, Turlock High School, CA: Hi Dr. Reuben! I just wanted to say hi and tell you that I use PAL all the time in my classes. I never realized how awesome it was until I became a teacher myself. I miss CSUS, and I thank you for teaching me about the Harlem Renaissance!! I still use my books, and I just finished Hurston's novel Jonah's Gourd Vine. BRILLIANT! Leslie (I hope you remember me). March 1, 2005

Ramiro Castelan, 9th Grade Student, Cordova High School, Memphis, Tennessee: Dear Professor Paul P. Reuben, I would just like to thank you for creating the Harlem Renaissance page to your website. We have not met but believe me you were a big help for my project that I had to complete. Your site was a huge help. I am a ninth grader in high school and have been taught to say thank you to those who have helped me. I will recognize you and your Website on my rough draft and my final copy as well. Again thank you. February 25, 2005

Dr. Nancy L. Bausch, Dept. of English, Arizona State University West in Glendale, Arizona: This is a wonderful resource! May I have permission to refer my American Lit. students to this site for Spring 2005 when I am teaching the course from Lauter's Heath Anthology? January 10, 2005

Mary Beth West, Graduate Student, CSUS: Hi Dr. Reuben, I was in your Gothic Lit. class last semester, and I can't tell you how many times this semester I've sent my high school junior daughter to your PAL site. She's had to read one novel for each historical period she's studied in History class, and your site always had more interesting suggestions than her teacher's list. She was particularly interested in the information about Transcendentalism, because all her teachers for years had used the term and no one had ever defined it for her or really explained to her what it was. (Silly surface-teaching-to-the-test-standards education!) April 25, 2004

Dr. Tyler Tokaryk, English Instructor, Red Deer College, Alberta, Canada: I am preparing a handout for my first-year English students and would like to copy and distibute some of the definitions you provide in "Appendix F: Elements of Poetry" of your Website. Some of the definitions I would like to use "word for word," while others would be edited for brevity, with examples from our course material added. Do I have your permission to do this? I would, of course, credit you and direct students to your website for further information and their own research. Thanks in advance. Your website is excellent. March 14, 2004

Patricia Anex, Assistant Principal and Middle School Language Arts Teacher, Carden Academy, Morgan Hill, California: I was just buzzing by, searching for Cooper information, and found your web site. My grade 8 class is reading Last of the Mohicans, and we were looking for details of Cooper's life. I think your site is great, and I am so enjoying reading it! As a matter of fact, I am typing this note in an attempt to wrest myself from a further exploration of the fascinating details you have presented so well and get back to correcting vocabulary tests! Thank you so much for all you have done here! I look forward to keeping current with your offerings. You are now at the top of my favorites list. With delight, November 7, 2003

Craig Amason, Foundation CEOThe Flannery O'Connor - Andalusia Foundation website is getting quite a few hits from the link on your site. Thanks very much! May 1, 2003

Ms ling Jian-e, English Department, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan, Hunan, China: Dear Professor, While getting myself ready for a doctorate entrance examination here in China, i came across your fantanstic comprehensive website on American literature.The more I read here, the more I feel like to drop a note of thanks, which is the first in my 3-year-long internet use. Regards. March 11, 2003. Between some luck and some gift, I passed the examination and would be a Ph D student in Nanjing University in Sept. The SARS epidemic should be over by then as the whole country is battling against it with all efforts. May 8, 2003

Diane P., Clear Lake High School, Houston, Texas: Hi, my name is Diane and I'm a high school student in Texas. I just wanted to let you know how wonderful your site is. It's always been so hard to find good sources for my English projects, and usually, I'd have to spend a couple of hours shuffling through the fluff the search engines turned up before I'd find a satisfactory source. Now, I don't have to do that anymore thanks to you and your excellent site. So far, I have used your Transcendentalism, Romanticism, and Sandra Cisneros notes within one week, and they are all superb! I'll be recommending your site to all my friends. On behalf of students everywhere, thank you so much! I know this letter isn't particularly eloquent, but thank you soo much again, you have no idea how great this site is! November 2, 2002

Selina Kuo, Editor, Times International Publishing Group, Singapore: We are currently trying to create a series titled Contemporary American Authors and features, among nine others, Raymond Carver, Toni Morrison, and Joyce Carol Oates. I was wondering if we could have your permission to use some of your website's material in the production of some sample pages (a maximum of four) for an upcoming book fair. Thank you for your time, and I hope to hear from you soon. August 13, 2002

Cathy Hill, Head of Library and Information Science, St Pauls Grammar School, Penrith NSW Australia: This email is to seek permission to download one copy of the information re Lorraine Hansberry on your website to add to our school library collection. This information on your website will be particularly valuable for our Year 12 students studying at HSC/IB level. Thank you. A copy of this email and your reply will be attached to the downloaded website information during processing procedures for inclusion in the Library Collection. May 10, 2002

Blossom Fondo, English Dept., University of Yaoundé 1, Cameroon:  Greetings, I just read your article on Naturalism on the web and really enjoyed it. I am a Ph.D student, specialised in post colonial studies. I have to present a seminar paper on aspects of naturalism in the plays of Caribbean writer Derek Walcott. I therefore used the web to carry out the research, I must say your article was rather enligthening. Thanks a lot and God bless you in all. March 14, 2002

Alexandra Murphy, Editor (History Online), Cambridge, United Kingdom: Re: LINKING TO YOUR WEB SITE(S): I am writing to ask if you would allow us to provide users of our web sites with a link to your own site. The particular web sites we intend to link from are History Online and ProQuest Learning: History, although we may extend this to other appropriate sites as we develop them. January 29, 2002

| Top | John Gregory, Editor, Literature Online, Chadwyck-Healey Ltd, Cambridge, UK: I am writing to ask if you would allow us to provide users of our web sites with a link to your own site. The particular web sites we intend to link from are Literature Online and Literature Online for Schools, although we may extend this to other appropriate sites as we develop them. Best regards. May 30, 2001

"Teaching Tools: American Literature and the World Wide Web." English Journal ( a publication of the National Council of Teachers of English) 90.2 (Nov 2000): 97-103: This 279-page site by English professor Paul Reuben is difficult to categorize - in a good way. He divides American literature into time periods and beneath each one has links to an introduction to the period as well as to individual authors. Instructors will find the study questions in each section most useful. And surprises abound: when we clicked on the link for e. e. cummings, we found links to images of his paintings, most new to us. February 21, 2001

African American Hotline: Chapter 9: Harlem Renaissance, 1919-1937 Professor Paul Reuben of CSU Stanislaus has put together what is perhaps one of the most comprehensive sites historically and literally. Drawn from his online textbook PAL: Perspectives in American Literature: A Research and Reference Guide, this site features an introduction that reiterates more succinctly and clearly than any other source the varied origins, successes and failures, and consequences of this complicated era. It also provides lists of primary works, selected bibliographies, study questions and related links for many writers and activists, including Gwendolyn Bennet, Arna Bontemps, Sterling A. Brown, Countee Cullen, W.E.B. DuBois, Jessie Redmon Fauset, Rudolph Fischer, Marcus Garvey, Angela Weld Grimke, Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston, James Weldon Johnson, Nella Larsen, Alain Locke, Claude McKay, Anna Spencer, Wallace Thurman, Jean Toomer, Carl Van Vechten, Eric Walrond, Dorothy West, and Walter White. January 12, 2001

| Top | Dr. Stanley Bank, Professor & Dept. Chair (retired), English Education, Lehman College, City University of New York: Like many academicians, I had little time during my career to devote to my original interests--early nineteenth-century American literature and Nathaniel Hawthorne (the subject of my dissertation) in particular. Instead, I taught and did research in English education, finally retiring as professor and department chair at Lehman College of the City University of New York. Going to the internet to begin re-exploring Hawthorne studies, I was delighted to find my American Romanticism cited very nicely ( What greater incentive to study could I have? May 28. 2000

Robyn Spizman and Ken Leebow:Congratulations! We just wanted to let you know that your site is one of the Incredible sites featured in our new book "300 Incredible Things To Learn On The Internet." It's already selling very well on! This book is the newest addition to the popular "300 Incredible" series of books, which has sold over a MILLION copies. So pat yourself on the back! April 13, 2000

Lynn Hurston, Woodhaven, New York: My name is Lynn and I am a grand-neice of Zora Neale (her younger brother Everette's granddaughter). I would be very happy to receive whatever correspondence regarding Zora that you typically send out. I am thanking you in advance for whatever I receive. I would also like to make clear my appreciation for your interest in and championing of her works. My father (her God-son),and I are eternally grateful that her labor of love is finally receiving recognition that was long overdue, and thankful to people like you who have been a part of that. December 12, 1999  

| Top | Dr. Donna Campbell, Gonzaga Univ., Washington: I just wanted to compliment you on your American Transcendentalism page; it's terrific! I'm revising my much shorter page on the subject and am pointing people to yours early in the page. Hope you don't mind--several of the pages at my timeline/movements/authors site link to yours, and I've recommended your PAL site to people who've written in with questions. Thanks for your good work and for linking to the Howells Society and Wharton Society sites. June 15, 1999

Literary History Site (Top Pick): A major web site for research in American literature, PAL: Perspectives in American Literature, is at The author is Paul P. Reuben, of the Department of English, California State University Stanislaus. Dr. Reuben has assembled information on over 150 figures from American literature, from Anne Bradstreet to contemporary authors and covering all the major writers. Digging into his data you'll find links to the notable web sites (annotated to explain the content of the site). There are quick summaries of major themes and issues in the study of each writer and a brief bibliography. Perhaps the most valuable contribution is the list of thought-provoking discussion questions on each author that could serve as a stimulus for a research paper, class discussion, or book group discussion. PAL is an excellent site for teachers, students, or book group participants interested in any major figure or movement in American literature. Dr. Reuben is demonstrating how truly useful the web may someday be for literary research. April 5, 1999

| Top | Peter Stoddard: I am descended from Solomon Stoddard (grandfather of Jonathan Edwards) and a casual scholar of the subject period covered in your "Chapter 1". I find much modern writing about the era to be incredibly dry and tedious, despite my keen familial interest in the subject matter. By contrast, your presentation is clear and direct. Thanks for such a readable "primer". 3/6/99

Dr. Ann Woodlief, English, Virginia Commonwealth Univ.: I'd like to use your wonderful resources on Transcendentalism for my graduate seminar. I hope you don't mind if I changed the format of your intro and bib a bit (all the good information is there--I just wanted the format to be more consistent with my other materials.) 12/29/98

The December 4, 1998 Chronicle of Higher Education, Page 27 - Information Technology Resources: LITERATURE. "PAL: Perspectives in American Literature: A Research and Reference Guide" is the 11th edition of an online project that features images and bibliographical and biographical information on American writers from Anne Bradstreet and Cotton Mather to Langston Hughes and Kurt Vonnegut. The guide offers links, study questions, and more. The site was created by Paul P. Reuben, a professor of English at California State University's Stanislaus campus: 

Dakin Williams: I am Dakin Williams, the brother of your subject Tennessee Williams and the last of his remaining blood relatives. I appreciate the work you have put in to your site providing insight and resources for those who would research the life of my brother. He was the greatest playwright of the millennium and deserves to be studied every bit as well as William Shakespeare. I have instructed my web site administrator to provide a link to your site from my own website 2/13/98

Penny "Bradstreet" Fort: Thank you for including my ancestor Anne Bradstreet in your work. It is wonderful for the family to see that she is becoming recognized for the important role that she played in our nation's literature and history. We Bradstreet women have always known that she was something special. Thank you again. 6/13/97

Dr. Jill, Rollins College, Florida: Dear Paul, Remember me? New to the Web, self-promoting Jill? Anyway, I find you invaluable as an Americanist on the Web--everywhere I want to go, you're there. Anyway, again, thanks for all of your excellent pages. Best, Jill 

Top Created July 2, 1995